Fresh/Brackish Tidal Swamp

Description: winterberry 1.jpe Description: white oak 7.jpe

Photos: salicicola.com

 

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Overview

 

Low stature forested wetland located along coastal rivers, at the upper limit of tidal influence, and flooded by daily tides. Dense shrub understory and unusually rich herbaceous layer. Tidal swamps occur along free-flowing coastal rivers, occurring upstream of freshwater tidal marsh, within the upper limits of tidal influence. The community represents an ecotone from tidal marsh to more typical non-tidal forested wetlands. Another variation of this community occurs along smaller streams at the upper limit of tidal influence. Tidal amplitude may range from 0 to 40 cm or more (estimated), and average annual salinity is less than 0.5 ppt. in freshwater areas, with gradients to 5 ppt. Brackish occurrences (average annual salinity (0.5) 5 - 18 ppt.) are also believed to occur, although more study is required. The best known occurrence of the community occurs along the edge of a freshwater tidal marsh, at the transition to a large Atlantic white cedar swamp.

 

Photos credit to salicicola.com (unless otherwise noted). Natural communities information extracted from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program (NHESP). NHESP's Fresh/Brackish Tidal Swamp natural community page.

 

SEMPBA Archives: Fresh/Brackish Tidal Swamp

 

Species Name

swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)

red maple (Acer rubrum)

green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)

American elm (Ulmus americana)

northern arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum)

winterberry holly (Ilex verticillata)

hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)

silky dogwood (Cornus amomum)

greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)

poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)

summer grape (vitus aestivalis)
fox grape (vitus labrusca)

jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)

sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis)

wild rice (Zizania aquatica)

Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)

 

Description: white oak 8.jpg swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)
Description: white oak 5.jpe swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)
Description: white oak 3.jpg swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)
Description: white oak 6.jpe swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)
Description: Copy of red maple 2.jpe red maple (Acer rubrum)
Description: Copy of red maple 4.jpe red maple (Acer rubrum)
Description: Copy of red maple 5.jpg red maple (Acer rubrum)
green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
American elm (Ulmus americana)
American elm (Ulmus americana)
American elm (Ulmus americana)
American elm (Ulmus americana)
Description: arrow-wood 1.jpe northern arrow-wood (Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum)
Description: arrow-wood 2.jpe northern arrow-wood (Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum)
Description: arrow-wood 4.jpe northern arrow-wood (Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum)
Description: winterberry 5.jpg winterberry holly (Ilex verticillata)
Description: winterberry 2.jpe winterberry holly (Ilex verticillata)
Description: winterberry 3.jpe winterberry holly (Ilex verticillata)
hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)
hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)
hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)
hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)
Description: silky dogwood 4.jpe silky dogwood (Cornus amomum)
Description: silky dogwood 1.jpe silky dogwood (Cornus amomum)
Description: silky dogwood 5.jpe silky dogwood (Cornus amomum)
greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)
greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)
greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)
greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)
poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)
poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)
poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)
poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)
summer grape (vitus aestivalis)
summer grape (vitus aestivalis)
summer grape (vitus aestivalis)
summer grape (vitus aestivalis)
fox grape (vitus labrusca)
fox grape (vitus labrusca)
fox grape (vitus labrusca)
fox grape (vitus labrusca)
Description: touchmenot 4.jpe jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)
Description: touchmenot 2.jpe jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)
Description: touchmenot 3.jpe jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)
Description: sensitive fern 3.jpe sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis)
Description: sensitive fern 6.jpe sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis)
Description: sensitive fern 1.jpe sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis)
Description: wild rice 4.jpe wild rice (Zizania aquatica)
Description: wild rice 6.jpe wild rice (Zizania aquatica)
Description: wild rice 7.jpe wild rice (Zizania aquatica)
Description: white cedar 8.jpe Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)
Description: white cedar 4.jpe Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)
Description: white cedar 3.jpe Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)